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The concept that if one bit of data changes, the cipher text will all completely change as well.

  • A. Avalanche
  • B. Substitution
  • C. Confusion
  • D. Collision

Answer: A

In cryptography, the avalanche effect is the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext. The actual term was first used by Horst Feistel, although the concept dates back to at least Shannon’s diffusion.
Incorrect answers:
Confusion – Confusion means that each binary digit (bit) of the ciphertext should depend on several parts of the key, obscuring the connections between the two.
The property of confusion hides the relationship between the ciphertext and the key.
This property makes it difficult to find the key from the ciphertext and if a single bit in a key is changed, the calculation of the values of most or all of the bits in the ciphertext will be affected.
Confusion increases the ambiguity of ciphertext and it is used by both block and stream ciphers.
Substitution – method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the “units” may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. The receiver deciphers the text by performing the inverse substitution.
Collision – occurs when a hash function generates the same output for different inputs.


Which of the following asymmetric algorithms is described by U.S. Patent 5,231,668 and FIPS 186

  • A. RC4
  • B. DSA
  • C. RSA
  • D. AES

Answer: B

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) proposed DSA for use in their Digital Signature Standard (DSS) in 1991, and adopted it as FIPS 186 in 1994.
DSA is covered by U.S. Patent 5,231,668 , filed July 26, 1991 and now expired, and attributed to David W. Kravitz, a former NSA employee.


In relationship to hashing, the term _____refers to random bits that are used as one of the inputs to the hash. Essentially the ______ is intermixed with the message that is to be hashed

  • A. Vector
  • B. Stream
  • C. IV
  • D. Salt

Answer: D

A salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that hashes data, a password or passphrase. Salts are used to safeguard passwords in storage. Historically a password was stored in plaintext on a system, but over time additional safeguards were developed to protect a user’s password against being read from the system. A salt is one of those methods.
Incorrect answers:
Vector – Wrong!
IV – an initialization vector or starting variable (SV) is a fixed-size input to a cryptographic primitive that is typically required to be random or pseudorandom. Randomization is crucial for encryption schemes to achieve semantic security, a property whereby repeated usage of the scheme under the same key does not allow an attacker to infer relationships between segments of the encrypted message. For block ciphers, the use of an IV is described by the modes of operation. Randomization is also required for other primitives, such as universal hash functions and message authentication codes based thereon.
Stream – A stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream). In a stream cipher, each plaintext digit is encrypted one at a time with the corresponding digit of the keystream, to give a digit of the ciphertext stream. Since encryption of each digit is dependent on the current state of the cipher, it is also known as state cipher. In practice, a digit is typically a bit and the combining operation is an exclusive-or (XOR).


A list of certificates that have been revoked.

  • A. OCSP
  • B. CA
  • C. CRL
  • D. PCBC

Answer: C

In cryptography, a certificate revocation list (or CRL) is “a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing certificate authority (CA) before their scheduled expiration date and should no longer be trusted”.
Incorrect answers:
PCBC – the propagating cipher block chaining or plaintext cipher-block chaining mode was designed to cause small changes in the ciphertext to propagate indefinitely when decrypting, as well as when encrypting. In PCBC mode, each block of plaintext is XORed with both the previous plaintext block and the previous ciphertext block before being encrypted. As with CBC mode, an initialization vector is used in the first block.
CA – certificate authority or certification authority is an entity that issues digital certificates.
OCSP – The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is an Internet protocol used for obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate. It is described in RFC 6960 and is on the Internet standards track. It was created as an alternative to certificate revocation lists (CRL), specifically addressing certain problems associated with using CRLs in a public key infrastructure (PKI).



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